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Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology (JTIT) - 3/2018

Krzysztof Borzycki
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Mouad Addad and Ali Djebbari
A New Code Family for QS-CDMA Visible Light Communication Systems
Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology for wireless communication networks. Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is a strong candidate for VLC-based applications. The predominant source of bit error in OCDMA is the multiple access interference (MAI). To eliminate MAI in synchronous OCDMA, zero cross correlation (ZCC) codes have been proposed. However, synchronization problems and multipath propagation introduce relative non-zero time delays. Therefore, the zero correlation zone (ZCZ) concept was introduced. In this paper, we propose a new method for generating ZCC codes. The proposed construction can accommodate any number of users with flexible Hamming weight. The numerical results obtained show that the proposed codes significantly reduce MAI, compared to ZCC, as well as ZCZ codes.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Mouad Addad and Ali Djebbari
Suitable Spreading Sequences for Asynchronous MC-CDMA Systems
In order to meet the demand of high data rate transmission with good quality maintained, the multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) technology is considered for the next generation wireless communication systems. However, their high crest factor (CF) is one of the major drawbacks of multi-carrier transmission systems. Thus, CF reduction is one of the most important research areas in MC-CDMA systems. In addition, asynchronous MC-CDMA suffers from the effect of multiple access interference (MAI), caused by all users active in the system. Degradation of the system’s bit error rate (BER) caused by MAI must be taken into consideration as well. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative study on the enhancement of performance of an MC-CDMA system. The spreading sequences used in CDMA play an important role in CF and interference reduction. Hence, spreading sequences should be selected to simultaneously ensure low CF and low BER values. Therefore, the effect that correlation properties of sequences exert on CF values is investigated in this study. Furthermore, a numerical BER evaluation, as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of users, is provided. The results obtained indicate that a trade-off between the two criteria is necessary to ensure good performance. It was concluded that zero correlation zone (ZCZ) sequences are the most suitable spreading sequences as far as the satisfaction of the above criteria is concerned.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Younes Aimer, Boubakar Seddik Bouazza, Smail Bachir and Claude Duvanaud
Interleaving Technique Implementation to Reduce PAPR of OFDM Signal in Presence of Nonlinear Amplification with Memory Effects
In OFDM systems, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of the signal is one of the main challenges that need to be overcome in order to use the transmitter in an efficient manner. As one of attractive techniques, interleaving can be used in PAPR reduction for multicarrier signals without spectrum distortion. In this paper, the authors propose to extend the possibilities of interleaving to improve PAPR reduction, to use a new coding of interleaver keys at the transmitter and a robust decoding procedure at the receiver. In order not to degrade the data rate, the use of null subcarriers to transmit side information to the receiver is proposed and evaluated. Simulation results in the context of the WLAN 802.11a standard in the presence of a nonlinear power amplifier model with memory, show a reduction of PAPR of approximately 5.2 dB, and an improvement of bit error rate and error vector magnitude of about 2 decades and 4% respectively, while respecting the spectral mask specification.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Mohammed Zidane, Said Safi, Mohamed Sabri and Miloud Frikel
Using Least Mean p-Power Algorithm to Correct Channel Distortion in MC-CDMA Systems
This work focuses on adaptive Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN) channel identification and on downlink Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MCCDMA) equalization. We use the normalized BRAN C channel model for 4G mobile communications, distinguishing between indoor and outdoor scenarios. On the one hand, BRAN C channel parameters are identified using the Least Mean p-Power (LMP) algorithm. On the other, we consider these coefficients in the context of adaptive equalization. We provide an overview and a mathematic formulation of MC-CDMA systems. According to these fundamental concepts, the equalizer technique is investigated analytically to compensate for channel distortion in terms of the bit error rate (BER). The numerical simulation results, for various signal-to-noise ratios and different p threshold, show that the presented algorithm is able to simulate the BRAN C channel measured with different accuracy levels. Furthermore, as far as the adaptive equalization problem is concerned, the results obtained using the zero-forcing equalizer demonstrate that the algorithm is adequate for some particular cases of threshold p.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Toha Ardi Nugraha, Muhammad Putra Pamungkas and Anna Nur Nazilah Chamim
Interference Management using Power Control for Device-to-Device Communication in Future Cellular Network
There are many scenarios that have been proposed for fifth generation (5G) networks. Some of them, if implemented, will bring fundamental changes at the architectural and node level. One example of such proposed technologies is device-to-device (D2D) communications which will change the nature of conventional cellular network design. D2D permits direct communication between two or more user devices without intervention of the base station (i.e. eNB). D2D can ensure network performance improvement over the traditional cellular network, because it can offload the mobile data traffic from the other devices. However, applying D2D features in a cellular network will bring about more complex interference problems, since D2D communication uses the same band as its underlying cellular communication network. The aim of this research is to investigate interference-related problems caused by D2D communications, affecting the underlying cellular networks, during downlink and uplink transmissions. The paper examines the use of power control methods to mitigate interference. A comparison is offered between fixed power level (FC) with or without power control, and adaptive power controls using two methods (AC1 and AC2), on a base station or on each of the D2D devices, based on the measured signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR). The simulation results show that both power control methods contribute to improvement of network performance. AC1 and AC2 can improve SINR by about 1 dB and 0.5 dB compared to FC in a downlink transmission, and by 0.5 dB in an uplink transmission.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Mohammed Amine Tehami and Ali Djebbari
Low Density Parity Check Codes Constructed from Hankel Matrices
In this paper, a new technique for constructing low density parity check codes based on the Hankel matrix and circulant permutation matrices is proposed. The new codes are exempt of any cycle of length 4. To ensure that parity check bits can be recursively calculated with linear computational complexity, a dual-diagonal structure is applied to the parity check matrices of those codes. The proposed codes provide a very low encoding complexity and reduce the stored memory of the matrix H in which this matrix can be easily implemented comparing to others codes used in channel coding. The new LDPC codes are compared, by simulation, with uncoded bi-phase shift keying (BPSK). The result shows that the proposed codes perform very well over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Dima Shaheen, Oumayma Al Dakkak and Mohiedin Wainakh
Incoherent Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Speech Enhancement
Speech enhancement is one of the many challenging tasks in signal processing, especially in the case of nonstationary speech-like noise. In this paper a new incoherent discriminative dictionary learning algorithm is proposed to model both speech and noise, where the cost function accounts for both “source confusion” and “source distortion” errors, with a regularization term that penalizes the coherence between speech and noise sub-dictionaries. At the enhancement stage, we use sparse coding on the learnt dictionary to find an estimate for both clean speech and noise amplitude spectrum. In the final phase, the Wiener filter is used to refine the clean speech estimate. Experiments on the Noizeus dataset, using two objective speech enhancement measures: frequency-weighted segmental SNR and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other speech enhancement methods tested.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Soodeh Amiri-Doomari, Ghasem Mirjalily and Jamshid Abouei
Interference Aware Routing Game for Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Networks
Cognitive radio is a new communication paradigm that is able to solve the problem of spectrum scarcity in wireless networks. In this paper, interference aware routing game, (IRG), is proposed that connects the flow initiators to the destinations. A network formation game among secondary users (SUs) is formulated in which each secondary user aims to maximize its utility, while it reduces the aggregate interference on the primary users (PUs) and the end-to-end delay. In order to reduce the end-to-end delay and the accumulated interference, the IRG algorithm selects upstream neighbors in a view point of the sender. To model the interference between SUs, IRG uses the signal-to-interference-plus noise (SINR) model. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated by evaluating the aggregate interference from SUs to the PUs and end-to-end delay. A comprehensive numerical evaluation is performed, which shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is significantly better than the Interference Aware Routing (IAR) using network formation game in cognitive radio mesh networks.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Rupali Agarwal, Neelam Srivastava and Himanshu Katiyar
Theoretical Investigation of Different Diversity Combining Techniques in Cognitive Radio
In this paper, the performance of an energy detector in cognitive radio, using different diversity combining techniques, is evaluated. Among many diversity combining techniques, maximal ratio combining (MRC) gives the best results but at the cost of the highest complexity. To design a simpler receiver, it is suggested to use less complex combining techniques, i.e. switched diversity, which provides one of the least complex solutions to combat fading. The paper analyzes two switched diversity schemes, switch examine combining (SEC), and switch examine combining with post examining selection (SECp). A closed form expression determining the probability of detection using MRC, SEC and SECp is derived for various numbers of branches. Detection performance with different diversity combining techniques is compared and the complexity trade-off is observed.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Gaurav Kumar and Virender Ranga
Swarm Intelligence-based Partitioned Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks
The failure rate of sensor nodes in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks is high due to the use of low battery-powered sensor nodes in a hostile environment. Networks of this kind become non-operational and turn into disjoint segmented networks due to large-scale failures of sensor nodes. This may require the placement of additional highpower relay nodes. In this paper, we propose a network partition recovery solution called Grey Wolf, which is an optimizer algorithm for repairing segmented heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. The proposed solution provides not only strong bi-connectivity in the damaged area, but also distributes traffic load among the multiple deployed nodes to enhance the repaired network’s lifetime. The experiment results show that the Grey Wolf algorithm offers a considerable performance advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches.
[ Bibtex Plain ]
Shylashree Nagaraja
Non-crossing Rectilinear Shortest Minimum Bend Paths in the Presence of Rectilinear Obstacles
The paper presents a new algorithm to determine the shortest, non-crossing, rectilinear paths in a twodimensional grid graph. The shortest paths are determined in a manner ensuring that they do not cross each other and bypass any obstacles present. Such shortest paths are applied in robotic chip design, suburban railway track layouts, routing traffic in wireless sensor networks, printed circuit board design routing, etc. When more than one equal length noncrossing path is present between the source and the destination, the proposed algorithm selects the path which has the least number of corners (bends) along the path. This feature makes the path more suitable for moving objects, such as unmanned vehicles. In the author’s scheme presented herein, the grid points are the vertices of the graph and the lines joining the grid points are the edges of the graph. The obstacles are represented by their boundary grid points. Once the graph is ready, an adjacency matrix is generated and the Floyd-Warshall all-pairs shortest path algorithm is used iteratively to identify the non-crossing shortest paths. To get the minimum number of bends in a path, we make a modification to the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, which is constitutes the main contribution of the author presented herein.
[ Bibtex Plain ]